But become makers of the message -
and not just hearers misleading yourselves
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Why Call Me God? : The Gospel Seen with a Single Eye
published by Capabel Press in September 2009.
explains the ancient 'mystery' concealed behind the text of the gospels
The riddles of
Greek scripture are soon unravelled to expose the devastating plot
shows that the deeply challenging message of the gospels
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As the basis for my work I have used the Nestlé-Aland 26th Edition Greek text. Copyright on this is reserved as follows :
..... Novum Testamentum Graece, Nestlé-Aland 26th edition (c)1979, Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart;
..... The Greek New Testament, 3rd edition (c) 1975, United Bible Societies, London
This is the Greek text underlying most modern English translations since 1881, including the New American Standard and New International Versions. Certain words within the Nestlé text proper are enclosed in square brackets [ ] or double brackets [[ ]]. These reflect those places where the critical text editors consider the inclusion or omission of such text to be in question.
This text is only available for NON-COMMERCIAL personal/scholarly and educational use.
I have also used the CATSS LXX editions of the Septuagint Old Testament
prepared by the TLG (Thesaurus Linguae Graecae) Project directed by T. Brunner
at the University of California, Irvine and made available through the Center
for Computer Analysis of Texts (CCAT) at the University of Pennsylvania 'for
the use of students, teachers and scholars in study and education
This text is only available for NON-COMMERCIAL personal/scholarly and educational use.
Unless otherwise noted, the remainder of what is presented in this
document is my original work. Copyright on this is reserved as follows
..... Authentic Christianity, 4th edition : (c) 2001 - 2004, Target Technical, York, UK
All rights are reserved - except that this text is made available without charge for NON-COMMERCIAL personal/scholarly and educational use.
One evening in January 2001 I was puzzling over certain intriguing features of the gospel stories. The passages which had my attention were Jn.3:23 (the baptism given by John : the places named Ainon/Saleim are not known to have existed) and the 'anomalous pair' at Mt.15:39/ Mk.8:10 (the destinations 'Magadan' and 'Dalmanoutha or Dalmanutha' given in the two gospels are quite distinct, they share 6 letters in their spellings, neither is known to have existed, and I thought there must be a particular reason for this).
43N 3 23 hn de kai o iwannhs baptizwn en ainwn eggus tou saleim oti udata polla hn ekei kai pareginonto kai ebaptizonto
43N 3 23 But John also was baptizing in Ainon near the Saleim because 'many waters' was there. And they were coming and were being baptized
I was puzzling this over ... an enigma, you might say ... and noticed that the first three letters of the place name 'ainwn' (Ainon) were also the first three letters of the word 'ainigma' (enigma). To my surprise I saw that the remaining characters 'i.g.m.a' needed to complete this word were right there within the next three words. So the puzzling composite place name 'Ainon near the Saleim' contains the very word which in Greek means 'a riddle' - but itself concealed in the form of an anagram riddle. Moreover it is associated with the baptism of John - and John is the name attributed to the writer of this Gospel.
Later I understood rather better the significance of the references to 'Magadan' and 'Dalmanoutha'. But I notice that most commentators remain puzzled by the significance of these place names - so I have set out my own analysis in the insert which follows here :
So this was my initiation.
With no prior idea that there might be any structure of this kind within the Gospels, I wondered at first whether this was not just a matter of chance. Perhaps that was all it was - just chance, nothing more.
But what if it was deliberate on the part of the writers? Then that might explain the use of non-existent place names - for 'making up' such names would allow to the author what mathematicians know as 'an additional degree of freedom'. If more extensive, it could perhaps account for certain strange features of the Gospel texts. What about the sometimes anomalous grammar, the apparently flawed quotations from the Old Testament, the difficulty of making proper sense of some of the 'sayings'? Then in some parts of the letters attributed to Paul the sentence construction is so confusing that to translate accurately to another language - and still make sense - is close to impossible. Confronted by this, many have resorted to paraphrase.
If it was deliberate then it would be reasonable to expect that there would be further textual 'enigmas' of this kind - which, if I tried, I might identify and even elucidate. Perhaps the Gospels contained an extensive double message - first the overt message with which so many are familiar - and then a further component concealed by the unexpected but simple technique of 'anagrammatic dispersion'.
I started on a new quest - to see what other evidence I could find. To anyone 'blind from birth' [Jn.9], the dawning possibility of 'new sight' can be quite exciting. But was this an invalid quest - or was it a valid one ?
2.2 What is a Gospel
So that (for me) was a new beginning - and a lot of things began to come into focus together. In what follows I shall depart from describing what I have found in the sequence in which I learned it. Instead I shall try to set things out in such a way as I suppose may best allow you to follow for yourself what a gospel may truly be - and how it may be 'read'.
First I would like to draw attention to what is written at the end of
(Luke's) 'Acts of the Apostles' :
44N 28 23 taxamenoi de autw hmeran hlqon pros auton eis thn xenian pleiones ois exetiqeto diamarturomenos thn basileian tou qeou peiqwn te autous peri tou ihsou apo te tou nomou mwusews kai twn profhtwn apo prwi ews esperas
44N 28 23 And having appointed with him a day, they came to him in the lodging. Mostly for them, he set out to give witness to the kingdom of God, persuading them about Jesus from both the law of Moses and from the prophets, from morning to evening
44N 28 24 kai oi men epeiqonto tois
legomenois oi de hpistoun
44N 28 24 And some were persuaded by that being said, whilst others disbelieved
44N 28 25 asumfwnoi de ontes pros
allhlous apeluonto eipontos tou paulou rhma en oti kalws to pneuma to agion
elalhsen dia hsaiou tou profhtou pros tous pateras umwn
44N 28 25 And being at variance with one another, they departed, making to Paul one remark - that the holy spirit spoke well through Isaiah the prophet to your fathers
44N 28 26 legwn poreuqhti pros ton
laon touton kai eipon akoh akousete kai ou mh sunhte kai blepontes bleyete kai
ou mh idhte
44N 28 26 Saying 'Go to this people and say "With hearing, you will hear and not understand : and seeing, you will see and not perceive".
44N 28 27 epacunqh gar h kardia tou
laou toutou kai tois wsin barews hkousan kai tous ofqalmous autwn ekammusan
mhpote idwsin tois ofqalmois kai tois wsin akouswsin kai th kardia sunwsin kai
epistreywsin kai iasomai autous
44N 28 27 For the heart of this people has grown fat. With their ears they heard heavily and they half-closed their eyes - lest they perceive with the eyes and hear with the ears - and understand with their heart - and turn back - and I should heal them [Is.6:9-10].
44N 28 28 gnwston oun estw umin oti
tois eqnesin apestalh touto to swthrion tou qeou autoi kai
44N 28 28 Then let it be known to you that this, the salvation of God, was sent to the nations [Ps.67:2]. They also will hear.
44N 28 30 enemeinen de dietian olhn
en idiw misqwmati kai apedeceto pantas tous eisporeuomenous pros
And he remained two whole years in his own rented place - and he received all those coming in to him
44N 28 31 khrusswn thn basileian tou
qeou kai didaskwn ta peri tou kuriou ihsou cristou meta pashs parrhsias
Proclaiming the kingdom of God and teaching the (things) about the lord Jesus Christ with all outspokenness (and) without hindrance.
So what was all that about? Finally Paul has reached Rome. In this story he is explaining the message of the gospel to the Jews of the dispersion residing there. But some were persuaded - others not.
At then at v.26 we get that quote from Isaiah 6:9 :
Within the 8 verses which I have quoted there are 879 Greek characters. The letter 'x' (X) is used in the Greek New Testament canon with an overall frequency of 0.33%. In a passage of this length we should therefore expect it to be used about three times. Indeed there are three 'x' characters here - but do you notice that all three are clustered in v. 23? How curious. And in that same verse did you notice the word 'peiqwn' (persuading)? Now the word 'puqwn' (a python) both looks and sounds similar to the participle 'peiqwn'. And in the book of 'Genesis' is not a serpent cast as a 'token of evil'? Coincidence? Or is this the kind of sight and hearing we now need to acquire?
But before we get distracted with that, stop a moment. Where else do we see those verses from Isaiah 6 quoted? They are echoed at Mk.4:12 and Lk.8:10 - but the other place we get them in full is at Mt.13:14-15. Shortly I shall return to this most informative chapter.
Meanwhile you may like to notice this - at Mk.4:11-14 :
41N 4 11 kai elegen autois umin to musthrion dedotai ths basileias tou qeou ekeinois de tois exw en parabolais ta panta ginetai
41N 4 11 And he said to them "To you is given the mystery of the kingdom of God - but to those who are outside, all things happen within parables
41N 4 12 ina blepontes blepwsin kai
mh idwsin kai akouontes akouwsin kai mh suniwsin mhpote epistreywsin kai afeqh
So that seeing, they may see - and not perceive. And hearing, they may hear - and not understand. Unless they may 'turn back' - and it should be forgiven them.
41N 4 13 kai legei autois ouk oidate
thn parabolhn tauthn kai pws pasas tas parabolas gnwsesqe
41N 4 13 And he said to them "You do not understand this parable. Then how will you know all the parables?"
41N 4 14 o speirwn ton logon
41N 4 14 The one sowing is sowing the 'logos'
So those failing to penetrate the 'mystery' are failing to do so because their sight and hearing are impaired?
And do not forget what is being sown by 'o speirwn' (the one sowing). He is sowing 'ton logon' (the 'logos'). This word means something like 'speech' or 'saying' - and in the gospel of John it finds very explicit use in referring to the person of 'Jesus Christ'.
Then 'composing' the verses of the Gospel may be 'sowing' [Mt.13:24] - and 'reading' these verses may be 'harvesting' [Mt.13:30]?
These words are all used in the Greek New Testament :
So the alphabet characters may be used like 'seeds'. Think of the letter 'tiles' used with the well-known 'Scrabble'[TM] word game. Assembled together, the letters can serve to express the 'word of God' - within which the 'mystery of the kingdom' may be concealed. The literal message may even be deliberately misleading. All is in parables [Mt.13:34 & Mk.4:11] - and a parabola (for in Greek there is no distinction between these two words) is the curve of a quadratic equation, an equation having two distinct solutions. By analogy, the Gospel texts may have a multiple solution - achieved perhaps by controlling the way in which the 'seeds' have been 'scattered' ?
The Greek word for 'dispersion' is 'diaspora' : DIASPORA. Literally it means 'sowing throughout'. Conventionally the word 'diaspora' is used to refer to the dispersion of the Jewish people throughout the Mediterranean world - and particularly so following upon the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in the year CE70. But remember that this is just about the time that the Gospels themselves were written. So it could be natural to think of a process of dispersion taking place simultaneously on two different scales. On the geographic scale, the word of God (the scripture) is dispersed along with the people - who in this first way act as its vector. On the scriptural scale, the 'word' which is carried in this first way is itself 'dispersed' within the written message. By this I mean that it is encoded, encrypted, composed in such a way that the full meaning is not immediately apparent.
The world of antiquity was fascinated by riddles - and I fancy the student of scripture is not to be spared exposure to this old-established tradition.
It looks very much as though there is an association of ideas on the part of the authors of scripture - so that this 'sower' is the very one who, within the texts themselves, 'puts us to the test'. To this end 'parables' form a part of his 'toolkit'. Then to deal with these 'tests' you will certainly need to keep your wits about you.
1 Kings [ the Queen of Sheba visits Solomon ]
11O 10 1 kai basilissa saba hkousen to onoma salwmwn kai to onoma kuriou kai hlqen peirasai auton en ainigmasin
11O 10 1 And (the) Queen of Saba heard the name 'Salomon' and the name of a lord - and she came to put him to the test in riddles
Then 'peirazw' is found at the following locations in the 'four Gospels' :
Certain compositional techniques used within the Greek 'New Testament' may involve the controlled use of those characters having a low overall incidence. So it may be useful to know the frequencies of the 24 different characters.
To see a histogram plot of the alphabet character frequencies in the Greek New Testament, click here.
In antiquity it was conventional for the alphabet characters to serve also as numerals. To follow certain points explained in this paper you will need to appreciate this. Table 1 shows the numeric values conventionally assigned to the characters of the Greek alphabet. The number '6' was represented by the obsolete 'digamma' - or by the lower-case-only character 'stigma', the Greek terminal S (see Bruce Metzger's book 'Manuscripts of the Greek Bible' [Ref.1]). Stigma was the brand mark put upon a slave or criminal. The number '6' may therefore have a sinister connotation.
Table 2 shows the English equivalents to the Greek characters.
The authors of scripture have inherited (perhaps from the hieroglyphic tradition of Egypt) the practice of 'coding' for a word by substituting its number equivalent. In Greek this is the 'ariqmos' (number value) of the word - achieved by adding up the numerical values of the individual letters. This is one of the techniques comprising what is known as 'gemetria'.
An extension to this practice - which again seems to derive from the religious traditions of Egypt - was the substitution of a first word by another word which happens to have the same number value as the word to be replaced. This is known as 'isopsephia'. It is recognised (by some) that these techniques feature in the book of 'Genesis'. But I maintain that they find use also within the Greek 'New Testament'.
These techniques are forms of 'arithmetic translation'.
Around 250BCE in Alexandria (Egypt) the Pentateuch of the Hebrew bible was transposed to Greek - yielding what is known in the Latin world as the 'Septuagint' (LXX) text. In Greek it was known as " oi o' " ( the 70, for the number value of the letter 'o' is 70 ). It is likely that this was the version in common use by those who composed the 'New Testament' texts (some 300 years later). For those who would like to learn more, I can recommend Jobes & Silva's excellent book 'Invitation to the Septuagint' [Ref.2].
Before the Ptolemaic era (ie. before the conquests of Alexander around 333BCE) hieroglyph writing had been established for around 3000 years in Egypt. Later (simplified) script forms are known as 'demotic' (ie. popular). As with Hebrew, vowels were for the most part omitted. Like modern Arabic, Hebrew is written from right to left - but hieroglyph writing may be in any preferred direction, even in different directions in different panels of the same text, and quite commonly with the sequence of the characters scrambled to improve the visual appearance of the composition as a whole. In Egypt no one would have been able to 'read' at all if he/she could not 'read' anagrammatically.
Here then we have the basis for the adoption of anagrams and of anagrammatic association within Greek scripture.
And whereas certain Egyptian hieroglyphs represented a particular idea (ideograms), the same hieroglyphs might be used to represent sounds (phonograms) - so permitting less common words to be spelled out syllable by syllable (much as we do with all our writing in modern times). Frequently a text would mix these types of use. As a result, interpretation (ie. reading) required not only pattern recognition but also a fair level of analytical intelligence. And (as one might expect) the language developed over time - which for us complicates things still further.
Then around CE400 the Egyptian written language was extinguished. The ancient scripts were replaced with Coptic, a script consisting of the 24 Greek characters augmented by six demotic characters (used for sounds lacking in Greek). Some hold that the Christian church outlawed the use of Egyptian scripts in an attempt to eradicate the link with the old religious traditions. It was not until the time of the Napoleonic wars (around CE1800) that the ancient language was once again brought to light - triggered by the analysis of the triple text found upon the 'Rosetta Stone' [Ref.3].
But when the Septuagint version was completed in Alexandria the Egyptian hieroglyph writing was still extant - and it seems hardly likely that those who re-wrote the Hebrew scripture would have been unaware of the 'Egyptian' equivalent for the texts upon which they were working. Moreover the books of the Pentateuch themselves were imbued with the religious stories and compositional styles developed in Egypt and the middle east over many hundreds of years. For (by tradition anyway) Moses was the author of the Pentateuch (first five books) - and 'Exodus' tells us of Moses' upbringing in association with the court of the Pharaohs [Ex.2:10]. Then in Stephen's speech at Ac.7:22 we have :
44N 7 22 kai epaideuqh mwushs [en]
pash sofia aiguptiwn hn de dunatos en
logois kai ergois autou
44N 7 22 And Moses was instructed in all the wisdom of the Egyptians. He was powerful in sayings and (in) his works
Now it is in this context that we do well to consider the implicit significance of certain features in the stories of scripture - as well as the associations made with certain letters of the Greek alphabet. For the tradition of Hebrew scripture passed into Greek around 250BCE - and then into the Greek texts of the 'New Testament' in the second half of the first century CE.
As is well known, Genesis presents us early on [Gn.3:1] with the image of 'o ofis' (the serpent) as a token of evil. But this name includes the letter 'f' (F) - and how many realise that this Greek letter is employed as a 'token of evil' in itself ? For the equivalent sound in Egyptian was represented by the hieroglyph of the horned asp (a species of serpent).
The other common hieroglyph depicting a serpent was that for the sound DJ - more or less equivalent to Greek letter 'z' (Z) which it also resembles in its shape.
|Horned Asp||Cobra ?|
|F; V = Greek 'f'||DJ = Greek 'z'|
Then, to complicate things further, it was known amongst the Egyptian scribes to substitute a phonetically different but visually similar hieroglyph in place of the correct one - just to give the reader a puzzle to solve. This is equivalent to making a deliberate spelling mistake. In particular it was known to use the 'horned asp' hieroglyph (above) as a substitute for the 'cobra' hieroglyph [Ref.4]. It seems that either of the two 'serpent' hieroglyphs might serve equally well as a 'token of evil'.
This, I think, is the underlying reason why the characters 'f' (F) and 'z' (Z) are amongst those used consistently in Greek scripture with a bad connotation [ 'x' (X) is also used in this way ]. The usual pattern is that words containing these letters may have a sinister sense - this being emphasised if such words are repeated within a verse, or if such letters are repeated within a single word. The latter is the case with the artefact word 'zizania' [n. plural] which is discussed in the following section. Then at 2P.1:19 we find 'fwsforos' (Lucifer).
At Ezk.1:28 - 2:6 we find the following passage - with the letter f appearing grouped into two clusters of three :
Here in the gospel attributed to Luke we find the letter 'f' used twice in one verse - and now (quite by chance) the letter 'F' comes through into the English translation as well :
As with Egyptian hieroglyph writing, it seems clear that subtle adjustments to the nominal text were also a feature of Hebrew scripture. J. Ralston Skinner ("Key to Hebrew-Egyptian Mystery") quotes Green's 'Hebrew Grammar' as follows :
The signs (of the alphabet) thus far described represent all the sounds of the Hebrew language. Its stock of words is formed by combining these in various significant ways. The laws of such combinations, and especially the mutations to which they are subject, or which they occasion, next demand attention. When a particular idea has been attached to a certain combination of sounds, its different modifications may naturally be expressed by slightly varying those sounds. This may take place :
Such literal changes as those just recited not only serve to express new shades of meaning, but even where the meaning remains precisely the same, they may represent diversities of other sorts. The lexicographer regards such words (undergoing such changes) as cognate, and traces them back to their common source.
- By the substitution of one letter for another of like character, and for the most part of the same organ, eg.
Hebrew Script Hebrew English H.I.H to be;
CH.I.H to live
- By transposition of letters eg.
Hebrew Script Hebrew English PH.R.TS to deal
PH.TS.R to urge
- By the addition of a letter
I hope this illustrates the fact that in the Hebrew language (just as with Egyptian hieroglyph writing) it is quite acceptable to substitute one letter with a similar one - or to alter the sequence of the letters in a word. A word amended in this manner may then have a meaning which is distinct from but related to the original word (so being the basis for the fruit/tree principle) - or it may be used in the manner of a metaphor but with the intention of leaving the real meaning unchanged (so being the basis for the anagram puzzle principle). These principles are exemplified in the chapters which follow.
Now anyone paying close attention to the Greek texts of scripture will notice that these compositional features are retained there . I do not mean that they always take the same rôle in secular Greek texts - but within Greek scripture these principles have a key rôle to play.
... the dagger [ macaira ] of 'the lord' is filled with blood [ aima ]
Do you see it? The very word for 'a dagger' is itself 'filled with blood' - and incidentally this is also the case with the word for 'a two-edged sword' [ romfaia ]. And if you are observant you may also see 'Christ' [ c..r ] incipient in the 'dagger' as well.
Then there is an obvious association between 'a midwife' [ maia ] and the 'blood' [ aima ] which she encounters. And if you look again at this verse from Isaiah you will see her there as well - within the word for 'Idumaea' [ idou-maia ]. This place name reads literally as 'look-midwife'. Beyond doubt it refers to 'Edom' (see Gn.25:30). But here I think Cain is 'the lord' - and his is the 'dagger' which sheds the blood of Abel (Gn.4:8).
Here is a related example from the book of the 'Apocalypse' [Rv.19:11-15] - of the one "sitting upon a white horse, out of whose mouth emerges 'romfaia oxeia' (a sharp two-edged sword)" :
The dative case of the word 'aima' (blood) is 'aimati' (with blood). Now do you see the garment [ imation ] stained with blood [ aimati ] ?
The 'logos' is 'the lord' (ie. Cain).
To receive the full import of Greek scripture you really do need to be able to recognise these things. So now perhaps you can see what the challenge is.
But if you read from a so-called 'translation' to another language then you will not see these things. They are absent from 'translated' texts : they are not there to see. Then surely 'word blindness' (dyslexia) will be your affliction - with a resulting inability to know the message the text conveys, to solve the 'mystery' of the gospel.
Then, like many before you, you risk being led badly astray.
2.6 The Sower in
There is a structural method employed in the Gospels known as chiasmus. The name comes from the shape of the Greek character 'chi' which looks like this : ' C '. I will not go into it in any detail here - but simply identify that chiasmus is a compositional form which involves selecting the most important topic as the central core of a block of text and then assembling corresponding layers of related information in a symmetrical arrangement on either side. The process may be likened to constructing a sandwich around its filling. These chiastic structures are not difficult to identify in the gospels. The principle may even be applied to an entire gospel. For example the gospel of Matthew has 28 chapters - and, according to this principle, chapters somewhere near the middle may contain the most important part of the message.
These chapters include the following :
We may do well to pay particular attention to what may be the meanings of these particular stories - and these meanings may not be all that obvious at first sight.
I believe that the parable of the zizania may be taken as a key example of my subject here - for the story relates to sowing, a process requiring dispersion - and perhaps this is a reference to a method of anagrammatic dispersion employed by the author(s) within the Gospel texts themselves.
Then this is what we are told in the 'parable of the zizania' [Mt.13] :
|40N 13 24 allhn parabolhn
pareqhken autois legwn wmoiwqh h basileia twn ouranwn anqrwpw speiranti kalon
sperma en tw agrw autou
40N 13 24 He set another parable before them, saying : The 'kingdom of the heavens' may be likened to a person sowing good seed in his field
40N 13 25 en de tw kaqeudein tous anqrwpous hlqen autou o ecqros kai epespeiren zizania ana meson tou sitou kai aphlqen
40N 13 25 And in 'sleeping the men', there came from him the enemy - and he sowed zizania in the midst of the wheat and went away
40N 13 26 ote de eblasthsen o cortos kai karpon epoihsen tote efanh kai ta zizania
40N 13 26 And when the grass sprouted and bore fruit, then also the zizania appeared
40N 13 27 proselqontes de oi douloi tou oikodespotou eipon autw kurie ouci kalon sperma espeiras en tw sw agrw poqen oun ecei zizania
40N 13 27 But coming, the servants of the householder said to him "Lord, did you not sow good seed in your field? From where then does it have zizania?"
40N 13 28 o de efh autois ecqros anqrwpos touto epoihsen oi de douloi legousin autw qeleis oun apelqontes sullexwmen auta
40N 13 28 And he said to them "An enemy (a person) did this". But the servants said to him "Then do you want (us) to go and gather them up?"
40N 13 29 o de fhsin ou mhpote sullegontes ta zizania ekrizwshte ama autois ton siton
40N 13 29 But he said "No, lest gathering up the zizania, you root out the wheat as soon as them
40N 13 30 afete sunauxanesqai amfotera ews tou qerismou kai en kairw tou qerismou erw tois qeristais sullexate prwton ta zizania kai dhsate auta eis desmas pros to katakausai auta ton de siton sunagagete eis thn apoqhkhn mou
40N 13 30 Allow both to grow up together until the harvest, and in the season of the harvest I will say to the harvesters : 'Gather up first the zizania and bind them in bundles for burning them : but gather the wheat into my store' "
40N 13 36 tote afeis tous oclous hlqen eis thn oikian kai proshlqon autw oi maqhtai autou legontes diasafhson hmin thn parabolhn twn zizaniwn tou agrou
40N 13 36 Then he released the crowds. He went into the house and his learners came to him, saying "Explain to us the parable of the zizania of the field".
40N 13 37 o de apokriqeis eipen o speirwn to kalon sperma estin o uios tou anqrwpou
40N 13 37 And answering, he said "The one sowing the good seed is the 'son of man'
40N 13 38 o de agros estin o kosmos to de kalon sperma outoi eisin oi uioi ths basileias ta de zizania eisin oi uioi tou ponhrou
40N 13 38 And the field is the world. The good seed, these are the 'sons of the kingdom' : and the zizania are the sons of the wicked one
40N 13 39 o de ecqros o speiras auta estin o diabolos o de qerismos sunteleia aiwnos estin oi de qeristai aggeloi eisin
40N 13 39 The enemy, the one sowing them, is the devil. The harvest is the completion of the age - and the harvesters are angels.
40N 13 40 wsper oun sullegetai ta zizania kai puri [kata]kaietai outws estai en th sunteleia tou aiwnos
40N 13 40 Then just as the zizania is gathered up and burned with fire, so will it be in the completion of the age
40N 13 41 apostelei o uios tou anqrwpou tous aggelous autou kai sullexousin ek ths basileias autou panta ta skandala kai tous poiountas thn anomian
40N 13 41 The 'son of man' will send his angels and they will gather out of his kingdom all the scandalous things - and those acting lawlessly
40N 13 42 kai balousin autous eis thn kaminon tou puros ekei estai o klauqmos kai o brugmos twn odontwn
40N 13 42 And they will throw them into the furnace of fire - where there will be whimpering and grinding of teeth
40N 13 43 tote oi dikaioi eklamyousin ws o hlios en th basileia tou patros autwn o ecwn wta akouetw
40N 13 43 Then the righteous will shine out like the sun in the kingdom of their father. He who has ears, let him hear".
40N 13 51 sunhkate tauta panta legousin autw nai
40N 13 51 "Have you understood all these things?" They said to him "Yes".
40N 13 52 o de eipen autois dia touto pas grammateus maqhteuqeis th basileia twn ouranwn omoios estin anqrwpw oikodespoth ostis ekballei ek tou qhsaurou autou kaina kai palaia
40N 13 52 And he said to them "Through this, every scribe schooled in 'the kingdom of the heavens' is like a man, a householder, who throws out from his store (alt: treasure) new things and old"
Here are a some comments on the above text:
Now I would like to quote from a curious paper which I came across some time ago ( abstract from [Ref.5] ) :
At Mt.13:38 "the field is the world". And in this piece "the world is like a book".
2.7 Zizania and
Now there is more to say on the significance of the artefact word 'zizania' (zizania).
Then we are cautioned against 'the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees' at Mt.16:11 :
40N 16 11 pws ou noeite oti ou peri artwn eipon umin prosecete de apo ths zumhs twn farisaiwn kai saddoukaiwn
40N 16 11 How do you not perceive that I did not speak to you about bread? But beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees"
40N 16 12 tote sunhkan oti ouk eipen prosecein apo ths zumhs twn artwn alla apo ths didachs twn farisaiwn kai saddoukaiwn
40N 16 12 Then they understood that he did not say to beware of the leaven of the bread - but of the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees.
And then 'the leaven of the Pharisees and the leaven of Herod' appear at Mk.8:15 :
41N 8 15 kai diestelleto autois legwn orate blepete apo ths zumhs twn farisaiwn kai ths zumhs hrwdou
41N 8 15 He expanded for them, saying "Look, see from the leaven of the Pharisees and the leaven of Herod"
Here you can find 'a.i.n.a.z.i.z' scattered backwards within the text again - making apparent the link between 'zizania' and 'zumh'.
The 'zizania' and the 'zumh' can be found anagrammatically dispersed throughout all the texts of the Gospel. It is straightforward to search the Greek text to see which verses provide the characters which would be required to reconstruct the single word 'zizania' (zizania). Here I have done it just for the 'four gospels'.
At the locations in bold zizania appears verbatim. At the remaining locations the alphabetic characters required to spell out the word 'zizania' can be found dispersed within the remaining text : it may be that here zizania grows concealed - 'in the midst of the wheat' :
In section 2.5 above I pointed out that the Egyptian form for the letter 'Z' was a pictorial representation of a serpent. Now it is interesting to notice that the Hebrew word for the verb 'to sow' also starts with a 'Z'. Indeed it may be related to the name 'Eliezer' (lit: god-sower ?) found at Gn.15:2 (see also Chapter 8.2 on Melchizedek). But it seems at least possible that this Hebrew word provides one basis for the artefact Greek word 'zizania' (zizania) which appears in the texts of the gospel attributed to Matthew.
|Hebrew Script||Numerical [R->L]||Hebrew||Greek||English|
I have plans to make available on this site (for free download) a 'Windows' program 'Harvest.Exe'. Its function is to enable you to use your own computer to search for a specified word, phrase or number value 'concealed' within the text of the Greek New Testament. A literal translation to your native language allows you to do this without any great knowledge of Greek. Searching must be conducted upon the Greek text - but by this means you will see the result in your own language also.
This site is still 'under construction'. So please forgive its shortcomings ! There is always more which might be done.
If you would like to make any comments (favourable or otherwise) or have any corrections to offer, then I would be delighted to hear from you - and please accept my thanks in advance. Please use this e-mail address :
 Metzger, Bruce M., "Manuscripts of the Greek Bible", Oxford University Press, 1981, : ISBN 0-19-502924-0, p.9
 Jobes KH and Silva M., "Invitation to the Septuagint", Baker Academic/Paternoster Press, 2000, : ISBN 0-8010-2235-5 or ISBN 1-84227-061-3
 Singh, Simon, "The Code Book", Fourth Estate, 1999, : ISBN 1-85702-889-9, p.205
 - idem, p.217
 Baudrillard, Jean, 'The Perfect Crime', Association Francaise d'Action Artistique, 1993, pp.5-12