James 1:22-23

But become makers of the message - and not just hearers misleading yourselves
For if anyone is a hearer of the message and not a maker
he is like a man assessing the face of his 'Genesis' in a mirror [Jm.1:22-23]

Please note: Strict implementation of HTML prohibits the display of 8-bit Greek characters from the 'Symbol' font, as still used on this site to display unaccented Greek characters. Users of Internet Explorer should expect no problems but users of Firefox 3.x may need to install the 'Web Page Fixer +' add-on available here or here before the Greek text will display as intended.

If you find this website to be of some interest
then you may also like to read:

  Why Call Me God? : The Gospel Seen with a Single Eye  

published by Capabel Press in September 2009.

The book explains the ancient 'mystery' concealed behind the text of the gospels
at the time they were first composed.

The riddles of Greek scripture are soon unravelled to expose the devastating plot
which must have been familiar to the Gnostic authors.

Analysis then shows that the deeply challenging message of the gospels
is not what the Christian churches say. It is something very different…
and now explained in this groundbreaking book.

For details, please click here

Why Call Me God

ISBN: 978 0 9562057 0 4

Chapter 5 : Why this Obscurity of Scripture ?

Copyright Notice
As the basis for my work I have used the Nestlé-Aland 26th Edition Greek text. Copyright on this is reserved as follows :
..... Novum Testamentum Graece, Nestlé-Aland 26th edition (c)1979, Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart;
..... The Greek New Testament, 3rd edition (c) 1975, United Bible Societies, London
This is the Greek text underlying most modern English translations since 1881, including the New American Standard and New International Versions. Certain words within the Nestlé text proper are enclosed in square brackets [ ] or double brackets [[ ]]. These reflect those places where the critical text editors consider the inclusion or omission of such text to be in question.
This text is only available for NON-COMMERCIAL personal/scholarly and educational use.

I have also used the CATSS LXX editions of the Septuagint Old Testament prepared by the TLG (Thesaurus Linguae Graecae) Project directed by T. Brunner at the University of California, Irvine and made available through the Center for Computer Analysis of Texts (CCAT) at the University of Pennsylvania 'for the use of students, teachers and scholars in study and education contexts'.
This text is only available for NON-COMMERCIAL personal/scholarly and educational use.

The translation from Augustine's 'De Doctrina Christiana' is taken from the 'Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers' - accessible in the public domain at

Unless otherwise noted, the remainder of what is presented in this document is my original work. Copyright on this is reserved as follows :
..... Authentic Christianity, 4th edition : (c) 2001 - 2004, Target Technical, York, UK
All rights are reserved - except that this text is made available without charge for NON-COMMERCIAL personal/scholarly and educational use.

5.1 Aurelius Augustine
Aurelius Augustinus was born 13th November CE354 at Tagaste (now Souk-Ahras in Algeria). It was during his lifetime that Latin finally became the official language of the western church. It is said that Augustine hated learning Greek but was a master of Latin and of rhetoric. An associate of bishop Ambrose of Milan, he was ordained bishop of Hippo (now Annaba, Algeria) at the age of 40 [CE395]. He remained bishop for 35 years until his death in CE430.

It is thought that he wrote the first 3 books titled 'De Doctrina Christiana' ('About Christian Doctrine') in CE397 - up to the point in Book 3 where he alludes to the woman who 'encrypted' leaven within three measures of meal [Mt.13:33, surely an allegorical reference to Abraham's wife Sarra at Gn.18:6]. It seems significant that he should have 'stopped writing' at this particular point - for the story of the woman appears to be a metaphor constructed to refer to the fact that there is a concealed component to scripture. In his later 'Retractions', he reports that he resumed writing Book 3 and added Book 4 almost 30 years later - by which time he would have been aged at least 71 [CE426].

The Latin text may be found in 'Corpus Christianorum : Series Latina XXXII : Aurelii Augustini Opera Pars IV,1 : TVRNHOLTI : TYPOGRAPHI BREPOLS EDITORES PONTIFICII : MCMLXII'. You should find a good translation to English at

It is from the second and fourth books that I would like to quote here [DDC 2:6:7 and 4:8:22] :

Book 2 : Chap. 6. Use of the Obscurities in Scripture which arise from its figurative language

7. Sed multis et multiplicibus obscuritatibus et ambiguitatibus decipiuntur, qui temere legunt, aliud pro alio sentientes, quibusdam autem locis, quid uel falso suspicentur, non inueniunt : ita obscure dicta quaedam densissimam caliginem obducunt. Quod totum prouisum esse diuinitus non dubito ad edomandam labore superbiam et intellectum a fastidio reuocandum, cui facile inuestigata plerumque uilescunt.

But hasty or careless readers are caught out by the many and manifold obscurities and ambiguities, substituting one meaning for another - and in some places (which for instance may be suspected to be false) they cannot hit upon even a fair interpretation. Some of the expressions are so obscure as to shroud the meaning in the thickest darkness. And I do not doubt that all this was divinely arranged for the purpose of subduing pride by toil - and for preventing a feeling of squeamishness in the intellect (which does generally hold in small esteem what is discovered without difficulty).

Book 4 : Chap. 8. The obscurity of the sacred writers, though compatible with eloquence, not to be imitated by Christian teachers

22. Sed nos etsi de litteris eorum, quae sine difficultate intelleguntur, nonnulla sumimus elocutionis exempla, nequaquam tamen putare debemus imitandos nobis eos esse in his, quae ad exercendas et elimandas quodammodo mentes legentium et ad rumpenda fastidia atque acuenda studia discere uolentium, celandos quoque, siue ut ad pietatem conuertantur , siue ut a mysteriis secludantur, animos impiorum, utili ac salubri obscuritate dixerunt.

Sic quippe illi locuti sunt, ut posteriores, qui eos recte intellegerent et exponerent, alteram gratiam, disparem quidem, uerum tamen subsequentem in dei ecclesia reperirent. Non ergo expositores eorum ita loqui debent, tamquam se ipsi exponendos simili auctoritate proponant, sed in omnibus sermonibus suis primitus ac maxime ut intellegantur elaborent et, quantum possunt perspicuitate dicendi, ut aut multum tardus sit, qui non intellegit, aut in rerum, quas explicare atque ostendere uolumus, difficultate ac subtilitate, non in nostra locutione sit causa, qua minus tardiusue quod dicimus possit intellegi.

But although I take some examples of eloquence from those writings of theirs which there is no difficulty in understanding, we are not by any means to suppose that it is our duty to imitate them in those passages where, with a view to exercise and to train the minds of their readers, and to break down the squeamishness and stimulate the zeal of those who are willing to learn, whilst also keeping in ignorance the minds of the impious that either they may be converted to piety or shut out from a knowledge of the mysteries, from one or other of these reasons they have expressed themselves with a useful and wholesome obscurity.

They have indeed expressed themselves in such a way that those who in after ages understood and explained them aright ... (etc). The expositors of these writers, then, ought not to express themselves in the same way, as if putting forward their expositions as of the same authority; but they ought in all their deliverances to make it their first and chief aim to be understood, using as far as possible such clearness of speech that either he will be very dull who does not understand them, or that if what they say should not be very easily or quickly understood, the reason will lie not in their manner of expression, but in the difficulty and subtlety of the matter they are trying to explain.

So :

This was held by Augustine some 1575 years ago. And whilst he says other things which make me doubt whether he himself was able to make much progress in penetrating the obscurity to which he refers, I do feel that the opinions he expresses (above) are consistent with what I myself have found out recently - and which I have tried to explain in Chapters 2 and 3.

The intriguing question is always this. How do I know into which category to place myself? May I be one who (pride subdued) has 'broken down the squeamishness' ? Or may I (all unwitting) be numbered amongst the 'impious' - 'shut out from a knowledge of the mysteries' ?

Hmmm ... There is a challenge!

Aurelius Augustine, did you know all along what it has taken me 52 years to realise? And did you really 'hate learning Greek' ?

5.2 Genesis
A knowledge of the blessings and curses configured in Genesis will be vital to anyone hoping to understand the full message of the gospel. For the writers of all subsequent scripture (unless it be forgery) will write within the constraints imposed by all prevailing invocations. These will take their effect within the subsequent texts of scripture, sometimes 'materialising' when we least expect it. In scripture this is just 'how things work'. It is the accepted convention - and one needs to be aware of it.

The process reminds me of a 'sausage machine' - where everything goes in at one end and disappears from view. One may expect that sooner or later it will all come out at the other end - but with a different superficial appearance. Of course it is the same material - but equally certainly it looks quite different.

Now I draw your attention to this curse at Gn.3:17-19 (following 'The Fall'). Referred to at Heb.6:8 (q.v.), it is the third in a series of three which get issued at this point in Genesis ...

01O 3 17 tw de adam eipen oti hkousas ths fwnhs ths gunaikos sou kai efages apo tou xulou ou eneteilamhn soi toutou monou mh fagein ap' autou epikataratos h gh en tois ergois sou en lupais fagh authn pasas tas hmeras ths zwhs sou
01O 3 17 And to Adam he said, "Because you have listened to the voice of your wife - and have eaten from the tree of which I commanded you, 'From this alone you shall not eat' - cursed (be) the earth in your works. In grief you will eat it (ie. earth) - all the days of your life.

01O 3 18 akanqas kai tribolous anatelei soi kai fagh ton corton tou agrou
01O 3 18 Thorns and thistles it will raise up for you - and you will eat the grass of the field.

01O 3 19 en idrwti tou proswpou sou fagh ton arton sou ews tou apostreyai se eis thn ghn ex hs elhmfqhs oti gh ei kai eis ghn apeleush
01O 3 19 Within the sweat of your face will you eat your bread - until your return to the earth out of which you were taken. For you are earth - and to earth you shall depart".

If I may summarise a few points :

Now we have at Mt.4:4 :

40N 4 4 o de apokriqeis eipen gegraptai ouk ep artw monw zhsetai o anqrwpos all epi panti rhmati ekporeuomenw dia stomatos qeou
40N 4 4 But he replied, "It has been written, 'Not upon bread alone will man live, but upon every word coming out through (the) mouth of a god.' "

In turn, this derives from Dt.8:3 - within a review of 'the ordeal in the desert'. This is how it goes in the LXX Greek :

05O 8 3 kai ekakwsen se kai elimagconhsen se kai eywmisen se to manna o ouk eidhsan oi pateres sou ina anaggeilh soi oti ouk ep' artw monw zhsetai o anqrwpos all' epi panti rhmati tw ekporeuomenw dia stomatos qeou zhsetai o anqrwpos
05O 8 3 He maltreated you and weakened you by starving and (then) fed you titbits of manna, which your fathers did not recognise - so that he might let you know that not upon bread alone will man live - but (it is) upon each word that proceeds out through (the) mouth of a god that man shall live.

There is a strong implication here that man is to 'eat' the word of this god. The process of 'breaking bread' involves 'breaking the words', this being the process which leads to the extraction (setting free) of such components as 'bread' [as] and 'fish' [cq] (see Chapter 3).

I may come back to this point later - but for now I shall just note that this seems to be confirmed at Ezk.3:1seq, Rv.10:10-11 and Prov.23:1-9. You can look up these texts if you wish. But I myself am confident that 'eating the word' is indeed a key concept within all scripture - so I shall hope that you are able to keep company with me on this for the time being. In current English usage we might say that scripture provides us with 'food for thought'. This is the concept the writers of scripture appear to have in mind - but, in employing anagram techniques, they have perhaps taken it rather more literally than many expect.

Summarising again :

If we combine these two statements (applying a logical AND), then we have an indication that the successors of Adam will 'feed' upon the 'word which proceeds from (the) mouth of a god'. But it seems clear that this will not be a process free from the need for effort on their part.

You will have to work at it! And there is no way to avoid this. For the 'word of god' has been composed in such a way that you must learn to 'read' all over again before you can access it fully.

This is what I have been doing over the past 12 months - learning to read anagrammatically in Greek so as to recognise, and to disclose, those key 'markers' (or 'flags') which have been concealed by the authors within the text itself. Remember that the woman at Mt.13:33 was busy 'encrypting' something - when she 'interrupted' the flow of Augustine's pen back in the year CE397. It was 'zumh' (leaven) that she was hiding - but there is much else concealed within these texts.

Those not realising this, those who can't be bothered to make the effort, those reading only in translation to another language - none of these will be actually excluded from the messsage of the gospel. For they will receive the literal message. But here lies the rub - and it can be quite devastating to appreciate. They will be led astray on a grand scale :

Here is the core of the scheme as it is implemented within the story line of scripture :

  1. In the stories of the 'Old Testament' a satanic figure masquerades as Yahweh (YHWH). In Greek he is referred to as :
    But he is 'a jealous god' [Ex.20:5; 34:14; Dt.4:24; 5:9; 6:15]. He says :
    But he is not the prime God, not the true origin of all that is. We should hear the witness of John :
    But does 'orthodox' Judaism recognise this - and does 'conventional' Christianity ?

  2. And in the stories of the 'New Testament' an equivalent figure masquerades as :
    - and then he dies :
    As I shall show in Chapter 6, he may be identified with Cain (Gn.4:1-16). The relevant curse is within Gn.4:10-15. As 'son of man' he may be identified with the 'lord sabaoth'.

    But he is an impostor in these stories. As John indicates, he is :
    He is not the prime God, not the true origin of all that is. For John gives his witness :
    But does 'conventional' Christianity recognise this ?

    Some have been told otherwise.
    Some may wish it were otherwise.
    But why contend with John ?

Then this is why scripture is written with a degree of complexity? So that the literal message will lead some astray - whilst it will still be possible for those who 'break through' to know in full the mind and the intention of the authors?

And was Augustine speaking truth when he mentioned that some might be 'shut out from a knowledge of the mysteries'?

And was the 'obscurity' with which the writers of scripture 'expressed themselves' indeed 'useful and wholesome'?

And finally, do you now see the significance of Chapter 4 - 'The Mystery of Oldstead Tower'?

5.3 Tower of Babel (in Greek named 'Tower of Scrambling')
At Gn.11:1-9 we may read of those who, being initially 'of one language', set out to build 'a city and a tower' of which 'the head' would 'reach up to heaven'. Then 'the lord' imposes a punishment. Approximately it is this :

'Going down, let us confuse their tongue/lips so that each does not understand the voice of his neighbour'.

In the LXX Greek the verb 'sugcew' (I scramble) is used here - along with the corresponding noun 'sugcusis'. Is this not a declaration that the message of scripture is to be 'scrambled' - much as is done in the security services by the use of a 'scrambler phone'?

What do you think? Do you find this surprising? Are you experienced at reading 'scrambled' messages?

Hebrew Script Hebrew Greek English
Hebrew009 BLBL sugcew confuse
Hebrew010 BBL babulwn Babylon;

5.4 Isaiah 6
Here I quote from the book of Isaiah (Septuagint Greek version) - with a near-literal translation to English. As I understand it, the Septuagint is the version which would have been familiar to the New Testament authors themselves [Ref.1]. And this text is obviously of particular importance to them, for verses 9 -10 are echoed word for word through what we have known as the 'New Testament'. In particular this occurs at the very end of Luke's 'Acts' (Ac.28:26-7) - and at Mt.13:14-15 where the 'quote' is immediately followed by this :

40N 13 16 umwn de makarioi oi ofqalmoi oti blepousin kai ta wta umwn oti akouousin
40N 13 16 "But blessed are your eyes because they do see - and your ears because they do hear.

40N 13 17 amhn gar legw umin oti polloi proofhtai kai dikaioi epequmhsan idein a blepete kai ouk eidan kai akousai a akouete kai ouk hkousan
40N 13 17 For truly I say to you that many prophets and righteous men desired to see the things which you see - and did not see. And to hear the things which you hear - and did not hear.

The Call of Isaiah
In this excerpt from the story, the writer sets out for us a vision of hell.

The seraphim (fiery creatures) have six wings each, total twelve. With these they are flying - whilst concealing the face and the feet of the 'lord'. This of course impairs recognition. And live coals they can handle with impunity.

He sees the king, 'the lord sabaoth', sitting on a throne lofty and exalted, his household filled with his glory - and with smoke.

Isaiah himself becomes 'stupefied' (perhaps we could say 'possessed' ?) - and he volunteers to 'go to this people'. In volunteering, he utters Cain's catch-phrase 'eimi egw' (AM I) [Gn.4:9 - see also my Chapter 7.6].

Then, consequent upon the deal which is done, it may be that 'With hearing, you will hear, but not understand. Seeing, you will see, but not perceive'. For us in this age this is a very real risk. For this scripture has been composed in Hebrew, then transposed to Greek - and done in such a way that there is more to the message than the literal component. And (until you realise this) satan 'hides from your ears and your eyes' by 'appearing to you' in these texts under the guise of God himself. There are more explanatory comments I could make - but rather let us hear the prophet. If you watch for my underlining in the Greek text then perhaps you will be able to spot what the author has done ...

23O 6 1 kai egeneto tou eniautou ou apeqanen oziaV o basileuV eidon ton kurion kaqhmenon epi qronou uyhlou kai ephrmenou kai plhrhV o oikoV thV doxhV autou
23O 6 1 And it happened in the year when Ozias the king died (that) I saw 'the lord' sitting on a throne lofty and exalted - and the 'household' was filled with his glory

23O 6 2 kai serafin eisthkeisan kuklw autou ex pterugeV tw eni kai ex pterugeV tw eni kai taiV men dusin katekalupton to proswpon kai taiV dusin katekalupton touV podaV kai taiV dusin epetanto
23O 6 2 And seraphim stood around him, six wings for the one and six wings for the one. With two they were concealing the face, with two concealing the feet - and with two they were flying

23O 6 3 kai ekekragon eteroV proV ton eteron kai elegon agioV agioV agioV kurioV sabawq plhrhV pasa h gh thV doxhV autou
23O 6 3 And they cried out one to the other and they said "Holy, holy, holy, lord sabaoth, all the earth is filled with your glory"

23O 6 4 kai ephrqh to uperquron apo thV fwnhV hV ekekragon kai o oikoV eplhsqh kapnou
23O 6 4 And the 'lintel' [alt: the hatch] was lifted from the 'voice' with which they cried out - and the 'household' was filled with smoke

23O 6 5 kai eipa w talaV egw oti katanenugmai oti anqrwpos wn kai akaqarta ceilh ecwn en mesw laou akaqarta ceilh econtoV egw oikw kai ton basilea kurion sabawq eidon toiV ofqalmoiV mou
23O 6 5 And I said "Oh, I am wretched - because I have been stupefied. Because of being a man and having unclean lips - in the midst of a people having unclean lips". I dwelt (there) - and the king 'lord sabaoth' I saw with my (own) eyes.

23O 6 6 kai apestalh proV me en twn serafin kai en th ceiri eicen anqraka on th labidi elaben apo tou qusiasthriou
23O 6 6 And one of the seraphim was sent to me having in the hand a live coal which he took with tongs from the altar

23O 6 7 kai hyato tou stomatoV mou kai eipen idou hyato touto twn ceilewn sou kai afelei taV anomiaV sou kai taV amartiaV sou perikaqariei
23O 6 7 He touched my mouth and he said "Look, this touches your lips : it will take away your lawlessness and will clean away your sins"

23O 6 8 kai hkousa thV fwnhV kuriou legontoV tina aposteilw kai tiV poreusetai proV ton laon touton kai eipa idou eimi egw aposteilon me
23O 6 8 And I heard the voice of 'the lord' saying "Whom shall I send and who will go to this people ?" And I said "Look, AM I : send me"

23O 6 9 kai eipen poreuqhti kai eipon tw law toutw akoh akousete kai ou mh sunhte kai bleponteV bleyete kai ou mh idhte
23O 6 9 And he said "Go and say to this people : 'With hearing, you will hear, but not understand. And seeing, you will see, but not perceive'

23O 6 10 epacunqh gar h kardia tou laou toutou kai toiV wsin autwn barewV hkousan kai touV ofqalmouV autwn ekammusan mhpote idwsin toiV ofqalmoiV kai toiV wsin akouswsin kai th kardia sunwsin kai epistreywsin kai iasomai autouV
23O 6 10 For the heart of this people has grown fat. And with their ears they heard heavily and they half-closed their eyes : lest they should perceive with the eyes and should hear with the ears and should understand with the heart : and they may turn and I may heal them"

23O 6 11 kai eipa ewV pote kurie kai eipen ewV an erhmwqwsin poleiV para to mh katoikeisqai kai oikoi para to mh einai anqrwpouV kai h gh kataleifqhsetai erhmoV
23O 6 11 And I said "Until when, lord ?". And he said "Until cities are laid waste, with no-one living there and dwellings with no people around - and the earth left deserted"

23O 6 12 kai meta tauta makrunei o qeoV touV anqrwpouV kai oi kataleifqenteV plhqunqhsontai epi thV ghV
23O 6 12 Accordingly God has driven away the people and the abandoned places will fill the earth

23O 6 13 kai eti ep' authV estin to epidekaton kai palin estai eiV pronomhn wV terebinqoV kai wV balanoV otan ekpesh apo thV qhkhV authV
23O 6 13 And yet there remains a tenth part of it - and again it will be like a nucleus, like the terebinth - and like the acorn when it breaks out from its shell

In verse 10 was drowsiness 'half-closing' your eyes ? Or perhaps you were wide awake - and you noticed that within the word 'ofqalmois' (with eyes), 'ofis' (a serpent) lay concealed ?

And were you 'hearing heavily' ? Or perhaps your ear was alert - and you noticed that in verses 10-11 the sound 'wsin' (with ears) was similar to 'ofin' (a serpent) - and repeated seven times ? For when (around 200BCE) this text was transposed to Greek, there was little (if any) distinction between the sound of the letter o (omicron) and that of the letter w (omega) [Ref.2] - whilst the letters s; V (sigma) and f (phi) did ever sound alike.

This excerpt from the LXX Isaiah, repeated verbatim in gospels and 'Acts', serves to establish beyond significant doubt  the use in Greek scripture of :

  1. Anagrammatic dispersion : thus "seeing, you will (now) perceive" that 'ofqalmois' (with the eyes) conceals 'ofis' (a serpent)

  2. Homophonic substitution : thus "with hearing, you will (now) understand" that 'wsin' (with the ears; etc) evokes 'ofin' (a serpent) - and repeated for your benefit six times in a single verse !

Now we should be 'on the lookout' for the use of these (and related) techniques throughout all of Greek scripture - which includes all the 'New Testament' texts.

And of course we should be 'on the lookout' for the serpent himself - here starring as the 'lord sabaoth' but who remains always, in his every guise, satan, the "enemy" of the prime God identified at Gn.1:1.

Beyond any shadow of doubt, these are gnostic texts.

Who should deny it ?

Remember Gn.3:6 ? This is where the game begins, the first place we find ourselves needing to hear 'with the ears' and to see 'with the eyes'. The ending [..wsin] of the word for 'food' is itself the Greek word for 'with ears' - but when we do listen attentively, does it not sound similar to the word [ofin] for 'serpent'. And this 'tree' may look like a delight to the eyes [tois ofqalmois] - but when we do look carefully, does it not evoke [ofis] a 'serpent' ?

Then surely this is what is meant by 'new sight' [Lk.24:30-31] : and this is how we are 'healed from our blindness' ?

01O 3 6 kai eiden h gunh oti kalon to xulon eis brwsin kai oti areston tois ofqalmois idein kai wraion estin tou katanohsai kai labousa tou karpou autou efagen kai edwken kai tw andri auths met'auths kai efagon
01O 3 6 And the woman saw that the tree was good for food, that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise. And taking (some) of its fruit, she ate. And she gave (some) also to her husband with her - and he ate

Remember Rv.12:9 :

66N 12 9 kai eblhqh o drakwn o megas o ofis o arcaios o kaloumenos diabolos kai o satanas o planwn thn oikoumenhn olhn eblhqh eis thn ghn kai oi aggeloi autou met autou eblhqhsan
66N 12 9 And the great dragon was thrown down, the old serpent, the one called devil and satan, the one deceiving the whole world. He was thrown down to the earth - and his angels were thrown down with him.

And remember what Cain promises at Gn.4:14 ?

01O 4 14 ei ekballeis me shmeron apo proswpou ths ghs kai apo tou proswpou sou krubhsomai
01O 4 14 If you throw me out today from the face of the earth, I will also be hidden from your face

01O 4 15 kai eipen autw kurios o qeos ouc outws pas o apokteinas kain epta ekdikoumena paralusei kai eqeto kurios o qeos shmeion tw kain tou mh anelein auton panta ton euriskonta auton
01O 4 15 And the lord God said to him, "Not so : whoever kills Cain will set free seven vengeances" And the lord God established a sign for Cain, so that all those finding him should not raise him up [alt: get rid of him; hang him]

Then look at the letter of James [Jm.2:1; see also Chapter 9], where we receive a warning more transparent than usual ...

59N 2 1 adelfoi mou mh en proswpolhmyiais ecete thn pistin tou kuriou hmwn ihsou cristou ths doxhs
59N 2 1 My brothers, do not hold at face value belief in our lord Jesus Christ of glory.

Now in the gospels we hear Jesus referring to himself as 'the bridegroom' - eg. Mt.9:15:
   [see also Mt.25:6, 25:10; Mk.2:19-20; Lk.5:34-5; Jn.3:29]

40N 9 15 kai eipen autois o ihsous mh dunantai oi uioi tou numfwnos penqein ef oson met autwn estin o numfios eleusontai de hmerai otan aparqh ap autwn o numfios kai tote nhsteusousin
40N 9 15 And Jesus said to them "Can the sons of the bridechamber mourn, insofar as the bridegroom is with them? But (the) days will come when the bridegroom will be taken away from them - and then they will fast

Did you spot the serpent there ? Yes, on this occasion it is Jesus himself !

Here is one of the explicit references to the 'lord sabaoth' in the New Testament - in Paul's letter to the Romans. Echoing Isaiah, we hear that the 'lord sabaoth' has 'left us a seed', without which we 'would have become like Sodom and like Gomorrah' (Gn.19:17-29).

In the story of Genesis these corrupt cities were destroyed [Gn.19:28] : but then the 'seed' of their corruption has been 'left for us' !

45N 9 27 hsaias de krazei uper tou israhl ean h o ariqmos twn uiwn israhl ws h ammos ths qalasshs to upoleimma swqhsetai
45N 9 27 Isaiah cries concerning Israel, "If the number of the children of Israel are such as the sand of the sea, the remnant will be saved

45N 9 28 logon gar suntelwn kai suntemnwn poihsei kurios epi ths ghs
45N 9 28 For (it is) a 'logos' complete and short that 'the lord' will work upon the earth."

45N 9 29 kai kaqws proeirhken hsaias ei mh kurios sabawq egkatelipen hmin sperma ws sodoma an egenhqhmen kai ws gomorra an wmoiwqhmen
45N 9 29 As Isaiah said, "Unless the 'lord sabaoth' had left us a seed, we would have become like Sodom - and would have been made like Gomorrah"

Here is the other explicit reference to the 'lord sabaoth'. The workers have not been paid. They have been betrayed ?

59N 5 4 idou o misqos twn ergatwn twn amhsantwn tas cwras umwn o apesterhmenos af' umwn krazei kai ai boai twn qerisantwn eis ta wta kuriou sabawq eiselhluqasin
59N 5 4 Look, the reward of the workers who mowed your fields, which you have kept back from them, cries out - and the shouts of those who reaped have entered into the ears of the 'lord sabaoth'

Back to the Synoptic Gospels ...
Now, what did Isaiah say? Something about hearing, seeing? What could he have meant?

40N 12 8 kurios gar estin tou sabbatou o uios tou anqrwpou
40N 12 8 For the 'son of man' is 'lord' of the sabbath.
41N 2 28 wste kurios estin o uios tou anqrwpou kai tou sabbatou
41N 2 28 Therefore the son of man is 'lord' also of the sabbath.
42N 6 5 kai elegen autois kurios estin tou sabbatou o uios tou anqrwpou
42N 6 5 He said to them, "The 'son of man' is 'lord' of the sabbath".

Matthew[40], Mark[41] & Luke[42] - repeated three times. I may be obliged to the French nation for the term 'double entendre' (double meaning) - and also to Rev. Charles Dodgson (alias Lewis Carroll : 1832 - 1898) for 'The Hunting of the Snark' where we soon learn the Bellman's rule : 'What I tell you three times is true'.

Were you listening carefully?

Then who was the 'son of man'?

Using what is known as 'Dynamic Hypertext Markup Language' [DHTML], you may now opt to see the matter taught in this section illustrated 'live' on your screen. To do so click here (may not work properly with older web browsers).

5.5 'Scrabble'[TM] and Sub-editors
Many are familiar with the popular word game 'Scrabble'[TM]. Each player holds seven letter tiles and uses them to spell out a word on the board. This game requires a degree of skill at 'anagrammatic reading' - for the jumble of letter tiles must be formed into a meaningful word. It is not difficult to appreciate that a 'Scrabble' board would be an ideal tool for composing a gospel. In England at this time there is a daily TV program called 'CountDown' in which the same skill is required - but in this case against the clock. So if I say that this skill may be helpful when you are reading scripture (in Greek), do not suppose that here I suggest anything which is not commonplace.

Perhaps I may mention also another example of how effective communication may be achieved by something being said which is not exactly what is actually meant. On 25th February 2002 I heard on the radio that a popular newspaper had carried a headline referring to the previous day's BAFTA film awards. The headline was :


Well, every person I asked that week knew that it referred to the recent film based upon JRR Tolkien's trilogy :


Not only does the word 'Award' share a syllable with 'Lord' (so that, hearing, they will hear) - but it shares the digram 'RD' (so that, seeing, they will perceive). The sub-editors of this newspaper - like the authors of scripture - are in the business of communication. When they use this technique, it is with full confidence that their readership will 'catch on' quite easily. This technique is in everyday use in our age.

However it is important to understand that a device such as this works only in the original language. If we translate this example to Latin, we get the headline :


But the probability that this will call to mind a film titled :


is much reduced - for the word 'Praemium' neither sounds nor looks like the word 'Dominus'.

Now you may see why we have so much trouble with the message of the gospel when we do not read in the language in which it was composed. Translation as a process can be helpful to us where our knowledge of the original language is weak. But it is the subsequent removal of the original text which serves to 'cut us off' from the possibility of receiving the full message conveyed by the original.

And for those who have assured me that the reading of a variety of translations can compensate for the loss of the original, I do not agree with you. I do not accept this thesis. Nothing can compensate for the loss of the original. Where the Greek language is not maintained the Christian church cannot - and it does not - survive in good health. It is impossible!

5.6 PostScript
This site is still 'under construction'. So please forgive its shortcomings ! There is always more which might be done.

If you would like to make any comments (favourable or otherwise) or have any corrections to offer, then I would be delighted to hear from you - and please accept my thanks in advance. Please use this e-mail address :

email string as GIF

5.7 References
[1] Jobes KH and Silva M., "Invitation to the Septuagint", Baker Academic/Paternoster Press, 2000, : ISBN 0-8010-2235-5 or ISBN 1-84227-061-3, p.184 & p.193 seq.
[2] Metzger, Bruce M., "Manuscripts of the Greek Bible", Oxford University Press, 1981, : ISBN 0-19-502924-0, p.13