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As the basis for my work I have used the Nestlé-Aland 26th Edition Greek text. Copyright on this is reserved as follows :
..... Novum Testamentum Graece, Nestlé-Aland 26th edition (c)1979, Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart;
..... The Greek New Testament, 3rd edition (c) 1975, United Bible Societies, London
This is the Greek text underlying most modern English translations since 1881, including the New American Standard and New International Versions. Certain words within the Nestlé text proper are enclosed in square brackets [ ] or double brackets [[ ]]. These reflect those places where the critical text editors consider the inclusion or omission of such text to be in question.
This text is only available for NON-COMMERCIAL personal/scholarly and educational use.
I have also used the CATSS LXX editions of the Septuagint Old Testament
prepared by the TLG (Thesaurus Linguae Graecae) Project directed by T. Brunner
at the University of California, Irvine and made available through the Center
for Computer Analysis of Texts (CCAT) at the University of Pennsylvania 'for
the use of students, teachers and scholars in study and education
This text is only available for NON-COMMERCIAL personal/scholarly and educational use.
Unless otherwise noted, the remainder of what is presented in this
document is my original work. Copyright on this is reserved as follows
..... Authentic Christianity, 4th edition : (c) 2001 - 2006, Target Technical, York, UK
All rights are reserved - except that this text is made available without charge for NON-COMMERCIAL personal/scholarly and educational use.
Melchizedek [Hebrew: 'melek' = king; 'tsedeq' = judgement] has a meaning something like 'king of justice' - or 'king of judgement'. In Greek it is rendered 'basileuV dikaiosunhV' [as at Heb.7:2]. It is without difficulty that we can discern the name of kain (Cain) hidden here - and it may be wise not to forget the promise made by Cain at Gn.4:14: 'I shall be hidden also from your face'.
The name Melchizedek appears only twice in the texts of the 'old testament' - once in 'Genesis' at chapter 14 and once in the Davidic Psalm 110. Then in the 'new testament' letter to the Hebrews it is noted [Heb.7:11-14] that Jesus Christ does not inherit levitical priesthood from Aaron. But it is set out that he is of Judah - and that his 'priesthood' is of the 'eternal' kind, 'resurrected' - in the words of Psalm 110 : 'kata thn taxin melcisedek' - 'according to the order of Melchizedek'.
This is why the identity of Melchizedek is of key importance in understanding the claims of Christian doctrine - for if you can characterise Melchizedek then (relying upon the author of 'Hebrews') you may characterise Jesus of Nazareth, the one 'said to be the Christ'. The Judaeo-Christian scriptures are documents which carry within them more meaning than the literal. So to extract the full meaning it is necessary to 'read' with quite some care. Here (as best I may) I shall investigate Melchizedek - and draw out some implications.
In Egyptian hieroglyph writing the epithet 'mAa-xrw' ('true of voice') was added to the names of those deceased. It is sometimes translated as 'justified' - or perhaps 'judged'. It refers to the fact that the deceased person is considered to have passed the 'judgement' - and is now allowed to 'enjoy' the afterlife. The roots of the Hebrew tradition in 'Genesis' lie extensively in the religious traditions of Egypt (see Ac.7:22). So the name 'melek-tsedek' might very well be used of one who has 'passed over' - and who in this story of 'Genesis' has 'returned to haunt the earth'
8.2 Melchizedek in the
'Book of Genesis'
Here is the (LXX) text of 'Genesis' - in which this otherwise mysterious character is first mentioned :
01O 13 12 abram de katwkhsen
en gh canaan lwt de katwkhsen en polei twn pericwrwn kai eskhnwsen en
01O 13 13 oi de anqrwpoi oi en
sodomoiV ponhroi kai amartwloi enantion tou qeou sfodra
01O 13 14 o de qeoV eipen tw
abram meta to diacwrisqhnai ton lwt ap' autou anableyaV toiV ofqalmoiV sou ide apo tou topou ou nun su ei proV borran
kai liba kai anatolaV kai qalassan
01O 13 15 oti pasan thn ghn hn
su oraV soi dwsw authn kai tw spermati sou ewV tou
01O 13 16 kai poihsw to
sperma sou wV thn ammon thV ghV ei dunatai tiV
exariqmhsai thn ammon thV ghV kai to
sperma sou exariqmhqhsetai
01O 13 17 anastaV diodeuson thn ghn eiV te to mhkoV authV
kai eiV to platoV oti soi dwsw authn
01O 13 18 kai aposkhnwsaV
abram elqwn katwkhsen para thn drun thn mambrh h hn en cebrwn kai wkodomhsen
ekei qusiasthrion kuriw
01O 14 1 egeneto de en th
basileia th amarfal basilewV sennaar ariwc
basileuV ellasar kai codollogomor basileuV ailam kai qargal basileuV
01O 14 2 epoihsan polemon meta
balla basilewV sodomwn kai meta barsa basilewV gomorraV kai sennaar basilewV
adama kai sumobor basilewV sebwim kai basilewV balak auth estin
01O 14 3 panteV outoi
sunefwnhsan epi thn faragga thn alukhn auth h qalassa twn alwn
01O 14 4 dwdeka eth edouleuon
tw codollogomor tw de triskaidekatw etei apesthsan
01O 14 5 en de tw
tessareskaidekatw etei hlqen codollogomor kai oi basileiV oi met' autou kai katekoyan
touV gigantaV touV en astarwq karnain kai eqnh iscura ama autoiV kai touV
ommaiouV touV en sauh th polei
01O 14 6 kai touV corraiouV
touV en toiV oresin shir ewV thV tereminqou thV faran h estin en th erhmw
01O 14 7 kai anastreyanteV hlqosan epi thn phghn thV krisewV auth estin
kadhV kai katekoyan pantaV touV arcontaV amalhk
kai touV amorraiouV touV katoikountaV en asasanqamar
01O 14 8 exhlqen de basileuV sodomwn kai basileuV gomorraV kai
basileuV adama kai basileuV sebwim kai basileuV balak auth estin shgwr kai
paretaxanto autoiV eiV polemon en th koiladi th
01O 14 9 proV codollogomor
basilea ailam kai qargal basilea eqnwn kai amarfal
basilea sennaar kai ariwc basilea ellasar oi tessareV basileiV proV touV
01O 14 10 h de koilaV h alukh
freata freata asfaltou efugen de basileuV
sodomwn kai basileuV gomorraV kai enepesan ekei oi de kataleifqenteV eiV thn oreinhn efugon
01O 14 11 elabon de thn ippon
pasan thn sodomwn kai gomorraV kai panta ta brwmata autwn kai
01O 14 12 elabon de kai ton
lwt uion tou adelfou abram kai thn aposkeuhn autou
kai apwconto hn gar katoikwn en sodomoiV
01O 14 13 paragenomenoV de twn
anaswqentwn tiV aphggeilen abram tw perath autoV de katwkei proV th drui th
mambrh o amoriV tou adelfou escwl kai adelfou aunan oi hsan sunwmotai tou abram
01O 14 14 akousaV de abram oti
hcmalwteutai lwt o adelfoV autou
hriqmhsen touV idiouV oikogeneiV autou triakosiouV
deka kai oktw kai katediwxen opisw
autwn ewV dan
01O 14 15 kai epepesen
ep' autouV thn nukta autoV kai oi
paideV autou kai epataxen autouV kai ediwxen autouV ewV cwba h estin en aristera
01O 14 16 kai apestreyen pasan
thn ippon sodomwn kai lwt ton adelfon autou
apestreyen kai ta uparconta autou kai taV gunaikaV
kai ton laon
01O 14 17 exhlqen de basileuV sodomwn eiV sunanthsin autw meta to
anastreyai auton apo thV kophV tou codollogomor
kai twn basilewn twn met' autou eiV
thn koilada thn sauh touto hn to pedion
Verses 18-20 are said to be a later insertion to the original text [see NJB Standard Edition : p.33 Note g.)] :
01O 14 18 kai
melcisedek basileuV salhm exhnegken artouV
kai oinon hn de iereuV tou qeou tou uyistou
01O 14 19 kai huloghsen ton
abram kai eipen euloghmenoV abram tw qew tw uyistw
oV ektisen ton ouranon kai thn ghn
01O 14 20 kai euloghtoV o qeoV
o uyistoV oV paredwken touV ecqrouV sou upoceiriouV soi kai edwken autw dekathn apo
01O 14 21 eipen de basileuV
sodomwn proV abram doV moi touV andraV thn de ippon labe seautw
01O 14 22 eipen de abram proV
basilea sodomwn ektenw thn ceira mou proV ton qeon
ton uyiston oV ektisen ton ouranon kai thn
01O 14 23 ei apo
spartiou ewV sfairwthroV upodhmatoV lhmyomai apo pantwn twn swn ina mh eiphV oti egw eploutisa
01O 14 24 plhn wn efagon oi neaniskoi kai thV
meridoV twn andrwn twn sumporeuqentwn met' emou escwl aunan mambrh outoi lhmyontai merida
01O 15 1 meta de ta rhmata
tauta egenhqh rhma kuriou proV abram en oramati legwn mh fobou abram egw uperaspizw sou o misqoV sou
poluV estai sfodra
01O 15 2 legei de abram
despota ti moi dwseiV egw de apoluomai ateknoV o
de uioV masek thV oikogenouV mou outoV damaskoV eliezer
01O 15 3 kai eipen abram
epeidh emoi ouk edwkaV sperma o de oikogenhV mou
01O 15 4 kai euquV
fwnh kuriou egeneto proV auton legwn ou
klhronomhsei se outoV all' oV exeleusetai ek sou outoV klhronomhsei se
01O 15 5 exhgagen de auton exw kai
eipen autw anableyon dh eiV ton ouranon kai
ariqmhson touV asteraV ei dunhsh exariqmhsai
autouV kai eipen outwV estai to sperma sou
01O 15 6 kai episteusen abram
tw qew kai elogisqh autw eiV dikaiosunhn
Now, in common with much of the book of Genesis, this passage takes the form of a compound riddle and its meaning is certainly more than may at first appear.
There is too much in this text for me to deal with everything - but here are a few comments :
|Hebrew Script||Numerical [R->L]||Hebrew||Greek||English|
|(310 + 8) = 1000 / p|
8.3 Melchizedek in Psalm
The other place in the OT (LXX) texts where Melchizedek is mentioned is Psalm 110 :
19O 109 1 tw dauid
yalmoV eipen o kurioV tw kuriw mou kaqou ek
dexiwn mou ewV an qw touV ecqrouV sou upopodion twn podwn sou
19O 109 2 rabdon dunamewV sou
exapostelei kurioV ek siwn kai katakurieue en mesw
twn ecqrwn sou
19O 109 3 meta sou h arch en
hmera thV dunamewV sou en taiV lamprothsin twn agiwn ek gastroV pro ewsforou exegennhsa
19O 109 4 wmosen kurioV kai ou
metamelhqhsetai su ei iereuV eiV ton aiwna kata thn taxin melcisedek
19O 109 5 kurioV ek dexiwn sou suneqlasen en hmera orghV autou
19O 109 6 krinei en toiV
eqnesin plhrwsei ptwmata sunqlasei kefalaV epi ghV pollwn
19O 109 7 ek ceimarrou en odw
pietai dia touto uywsei kefalhn
Here are some comments on this psalm. Ostensibly it is addressed to one of the Davidic kings :
Finally, as I have mentioned both Melchizedek and Cain here, I would like to quote Rv.3:12 :
66N 3 12 o
nikwn poihsw auton stulon en tw naw tou qeou mou kai exw ou mh exelqh eti kai
grayw ep auton to onoma tou qeou mou
kai to onoma thV
polewV tou qeou mou thV kainhV ierousalhm h
katabainousa ek tou
ouranou apo tou qeou mou kai to onoma mou to kainon
66N 3 12 He who overcomes, I will make him a pillar in the temple of my god, and he will go out from there no more. I will write on him the name of my god - and the name of the city of my god, the new Jerusalem, going down out of heaven from my god - and my own new name.
Now did you get that ?
"I will write upon him the name of my god, the name of the city of my god - and my own new name".
And did you see what that name was ?
Was it not 'kain' - Cain ?
The ariqmoV value of
kain = 81
The ariqmoV value of melcisedek = 919
The ariqmoV value of kain + melcisedek = 81 + 919 = 1000
The ariqmoV value of o nikwn = 1000
So Melchizedek and Cain are complementary (in the mathematical sense of the word), circumscribing the world.
|melcisedek + kain = 1000 = (310 + 8) * p = "o nikwn"|
Consistent with other conclusions drawn above, it also appears that Melchizedek and Cain are complementary - presumably as 'father' and 'son'.
Then at Jn.10:30 Jesus himself declares :
43N 10 30 egw kai o pathr en esmen
43N 10 30 I and the Father are one
And at 2P.3:8 the equivalence is declared between ONE and A THOUSAND
61N 3 8 en de touto mh lanqanetw umaV agaphtoi oti mia hmera para kuriw wV cilia eth kai cilia eth wV hmera mia
61N 3 8 But in this let it not escape your notice, beloved, that ONE day with a lord (is) as A THOUSAND years - and A THOUSAND years as ONE day.
8.4 Melchizedek in the NT
'Letter to Hebrews'
Within the NT canon, Melchizedek is mentioned only in the letter to the Hebrews. But there in chapters 5-7 he is mentioned 8 times - and associated with Jesus Christ. Without going into too much detail, the following points are made :
So this 'special priesthood' is established in a 'new' covenant - and did you see the name of kain (Cain) there?. It is inherited through Israel (alias Jacob, who in Genesis Chapter 27 lies three times to his own father) - and through Jacob's son Judah, who at Genesis Chapter 38 takes as a prostitute his own daughter-in-law, Tamar. Then this latter story is echoed at Jn.8:1-11 (the woman taken in adultery) - with Jesus taking the place of Judah. The woman (Tamar) has (still) not returned his 'string', 'seal' and 'rod' - so Jesus is forced to use his finger to write on the ground. And, like Judah before him, he is unable to condemn the woman.
Some final thoughts :
Here are some abstracts from Microsoft's 'Encarta' Encyclopaedia [Copyright (c) 1994 Microsoft Corp; (c) 1994 Funk & Wagnalls Corp] :
|Ares. In Greek mythology, god of war and son of Zeus, king of the gods, and his wife, Hera. The Romans identified him with Mars, also a god of war. Aggressive and sanguinary, Ares personified the brutal nature of war. He was unpopular with both gods and humans. Among the deities associated with Ares were his consort, Aphrodite, goddess of love, and such minor deities as Deimos (Fear) and Phobos (Rout), who accompanied him in battle. Although fierce and warlike, Ares was not invincible, even against mortals. The worship of Ares, believed to have originated in Thrace, was not extensive in ancient Greece, and where it existed, it lacked social or moral significance. Ares was an ancestral deity of Thebes and had a temple at Athens, at the foot of the Areopagus, or Hill of Ares.|
|Mars. In Roman mythology, god of war, the son of Jupiter, king of the gods, and of his wife, Juno. One of the most important Roman deities, Mars was regarded as the father of the Roman people, because he was the father of Romulus, the legendary founder of Rome. Originally a god of the year, especially of the spring, Mars was identified by the Romans with the Greek god of war, Ares. The month of March was named for him.|
J Ralston Skinner has written on the Kabalistic significance of the characters who appear in the Genesis story. In his Key to the Hebrew Egyptian Mystery (Ref. 5) he says :
"Now Mars was the lord of birth and of death, of generation and of destruction, of ploughing, of building, of sculpture or stone-cutting, of architecture, of the origin of measures ... of all arts. He was the primeval principle, disintegrating into the modification of two opposites for production.
Astronomically, too, he held the birthplace of the day and year, the place of its increase of strength, Aries, and likewise the place of its death, Scorpio. He held the house of Venus, and that of the Scorpion. He, as birth, was Good; as death, was Evil. As good, he was light; as bad, he was night. As good, he was man; as bad, he was woman. He held the cardinal points, and as Cain, or Vulcan, or Pater Sadic, or Melchizadek, he was Lord of the Ecliptic, or balance, or line of adjustment, and therefore was 'the just one'. The ancients held to there being seven planets, or great gods, growing out of eight, and Pater Sadik, the Just or Right One, was lord of the eighth, which was Mater Terra (ie. 'mother earth')."
In the text quoted above, I have emphasised names which clearly link to the texts of Genesis - and of Psalm 110.
What is said in this abstract seems to be consistent at least in part with the observations which (independently) I have been able to make in the foregoing sections of this note.
Indeed one might go further than this, for then we may consider again Gn.1:26-28 :
01O 1 26 kai eipen o qeoV
poihswmen anqrwpon kat' eikona
hmeteran kai kaq' omoiwsin kai
arcetwsan twn icquwn thV qalasshV kai twn peteinwn tou ouranou kai twn kthnwn
kai pashV thV ghV kai pantwn twn erpetwn twn erpontwn epi thV ghV
01O 1 27 kai epoihsen o qeoV
ton anqrwpon kat' eikona qeou epoihsen auton arsen kai qhlu epoihsen autouV
01O 1 28 kai huloghsen autouV
o qeoV legwn auxanesqe kai plhqunesqe kai plhrwsate thn ghn kai
katakurieusate authV kai arcete twn icquwn thV
qalasshV kai twn peteinwn tou ouranou kai pantwn twn kthnwn kai pashV thV ghV
kai pantwn twn erpetwn twn erpontwn epi thV ghV
The reference to making this PERSON to be 'in the image of a god', yet 'male and female he made them', may perhaps remind us of the qualities attributed to Ares/Mars - 'disintegrating into the modification of two opposites for production'.
This site is still 'under construction'. So please forgive its shortcomings ! There is always more which might be done.
If you would like to make any comments (favourable or otherwise) or have any corrections to offer, then I would be delighted to hear from you - and please accept my thanks in advance. Please use this e-mail address :
 Kahn, David, 'The Codebreakers : The Story of Secret Writing', Simon & Schuster (Scribner), 1967, 1996 : ISBN 0-684-83130-9, p.92
 In LXX Greek we have 2nd sg. aor. subj. act. from the verb 'diairew'
- see http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2324848 ).
 'A Catechism of Christian Doctrine', CTS Pocket Classics, ISBN 0851834205
or 'The Penny Catechism : A Catechism of Christian Doctrine', ISBN 0895557525
 Singh, Simon, 'The Code Book', Fourth Estate, 1999 : ISBN 1-85702-889-9, p.217
 Ralston Skinner, J., 'Key to the Hebrew-Egyptian Mystery in the Source of Measures', Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 1-56459-519-6, p.186